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• 1253 – Nichiren, a Japanese monk, expounded Namu Myōhō Renge Kyō for the first time and declared it to be the essence of Buddhism, in effect founding Nichiren Buddhism.

1887 – A week after being arrested by the Prussian Secret Police, Alsatian police inspector Guillaume Schnaebelé was released on order of German Emperor William I, defusing a possible war.

1949 – Former First Lady of the Philippines Aurora Quezon, her daughter, and ten others were assassinated by the military arm of the Philippine Communist Party.

1965 – Four days after the Dominican Civil War began, the United States invaded the country, aiming to prevent the development of what Lyndon Johnson saw as a possible second Cuban Revolution.

2001 – Dennis Tito became the world's first fee-paying space tourist, riding the Russian Soyuz TM-32 spacecraft to the International Space Station.

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