• 45 BC – The Julian calendar takes effect as the civil calendar of the Roman Empire, establishing January 1 as the new date of the new year.

• 42 BC – The Roman Senate posthumously deifies Julius Caesar.

• 1502 – The present-day location of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is first explored by the Portuguese.

• 1600 – Scotland begins its numbered year on January 1 instead of March 25.

• 1877 – Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom is proclaimed Empress of India.

• 1892 – Birth Day of Mahadev Desai, Indian author and activist (Death: 1942)

• 1894 – Birth Day of Satyendra Nath Bose, Indian physicist and mathematician (Death: 1974)

Satyendra Nath Bose(1 January 1894 – 4 February 1974) was an Indian physicist from Bengal specialising in theoretical physics. He is best known for his work on quantum mechanics in the early 1920s, providing the foundation for Bose–Einstein statistics and the theory of the Bose–Einstein condensate. A Fellow of the Royal Society, he was awarded India's second highest civilian award, the Padma Vibhushan in 1954 by the Government of India

• 1906 – British India officially adopts Indian Standard Time.

• 1978 – Air India Flight 855 Boeing 747 crashes into the sea, due to instrument failure and pilot disorientation, off the coast of Bombay, India, killing 213.