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1. Nearest star to the Earth ?
The Sun, which is at a distance of 92,955,900 miles from Earth is the nearest star to Earth. The distance of the Sun from the Earth is termed as 1 Astronomical Unit. Light from the Sun takes nearly 8 minutes to reach the Earth.

2. Nearest star to the Earth (other than the Sun) ?

Proxima Centauri
Proxima Centauri, which was discovered in the year 1915, is at a distance of nearly 4.2 light years from Earth. One light year is equal to the distance light travels in one year.

3. Brightest star as seen from the Earth ?

Dog Star (Sirius)
Sirius A (Alpha Canis Majoris), also known as the Dog Star, is the brightest star visible from the surface of Earth. It has an apparent brightness magnitude of -1.46. It is nearly 8.65 light years away from the Earth and has luminosity 26 times greater than that of the Sun. It is visible in the winter months of the northern hemisphere.

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