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2016 NOBEL PRIZE WINNERS



Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology

Japan-born scientist, Yoshinori Ohsumi illuminated a cellular process called autophagy, or "self-eating," in which cells take unneeded or damaged material, including entire organelles, and transport them to a recycling compartment of sorts — in yeast cells, this compartment is called the lisosome, while vacuoles serve a similar purpose in human cells.

Nobel Prize in Physics

David J. Thouless, F. Duncan M. Haldane and J. Michael Kosterlitz were jointly awarded this year's Nobel Prize in physics for "theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter." (Topology refers to "a branch of mathematics that describes properties that change step-wise," according to the Nobel Foundation.)

Nobel Prize in Chemistry

Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Sir J. Fraser Stoddart and Bernard L. Feringa were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for the design and synthesis of molecular machines." In other words, this trio developed the world's smallest machines by linking together molecules into a unit that, when energy is added, could do some kind of work. These machines, a thousand times thinner than a strand of hair, included a tiny lift, mini motors and artificial muscles.

Nobel Peace Prize

Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos has won the Nobel Peace Prize "for his resolute efforts to bring the country's more than 50-year-long civil war to an end, a war that has cost the lives of at least 220,000 Colombians and displaced close to 6 million people," according to a statement by the Nobel Foundation.





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