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• 1320 – The Declaration of Arbroath, a declaration of Scottish independence, was adopted.

• 1866 – The Grand Army of the Republic, a fraternal organization composed of veterans of the Union Army who had served in the American Civil War, was founded in Decatur, Illinois.

• 1869 – Celluloid is patented.

Celluloids are a class of compounds created from nitrocellulose and camphor, with added dyes and other agents. Generally considered the first thermoplastic, it was first created as Parkesine in 1856[1] and as Xylonite in 1869, before being registered as Celluloid in 1870. Celluloid is easily molded and shaped, and it was first widely used as an ivory replacement.

The main use was in movie and photography film industries, which used only celluloid films prior to acetate films that were introduced in the 1950s. Celluloid is highly flammable, difficult and expensive to produce and no longer widely used, although its most common uses today are in table tennis balls, musical instruments and guitar picks.

• 1896 – The first modern Olympic Games opened in Athens, with 241 athletes from 14 nations participating in 43 events in nine disciplines.

The opening ceremony in the Panathinaiko Stadium
• 1930 – Gandhi raises a lump of mud and salt and declares, "With this, I am shaking the foundations of the British Empire," beginning the Salt Satyagraha.

• 1973 – Launch of Pioneer 11 spacecraft.

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