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624 – Led by Muhammad, the Muslims of Medina defeated the Quraysh of Mecca in Badr, present-day Saudi Arabia.

1781 – Astronomer and composer William Herschel discovered the planet Uranus while in the garden of his house in Bath, Somerset, thinking it was a comet.

1845 – German composer Felix Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto, one of the most popular and most frequently performed violin concertos of all time, was first played in Leipzig.

1943 РThe Holocaust: Nazi German troops began liquidating the Jewish Ghetto in Kraków, Poland, sending about 8,000 Jews deemed able to work to the Plaszow labor camp, with the rest either killed or sent to Auschwitz.

1986 – Claiming the right of innocent passage, American warships USS Yorktown and USS Caron entered the Soviet territorial waters in the Black Sea, inciting Soviet combat readiness.

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