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EmperorBirthReign PeriodDeathNotes
BaburFeb 23, 14831526–1530Dec 26, 1530Was a direct descendant of Genghis Khan through his mother and was descendant of Timur through his father. Founded the Mughal Empire after his victories at the Battle of Panipat (1526) and the Battle of Khanwa.
HumayunMar 6, 15081530–1540Jan 1556Reign interrupted by Suri Dynasty. Youth and inexperience at ascension led to his being regarded as a less effective ruler than usurper, Sher Shah Suri.
Sher Shah Suri14721540–1545May 1545Deposed Humayun and led the Suri Dynasty.
Islam Shah Suric.15001545–155415542nd and last ruler of the Suri Dynasty, claims of sons Sikandar and Adil Shah were eliminated by Humayun's restoration.
HumayunMar 6, 15081555–1556Jan 1556Restored rule was more unified and effective than initial reign of 1530–1540; left unified empire for his son, Akbar.
AkbarNov 14, 15421556–1605Oct 27, 1605He and Bairam Khan defeated Hemu during the Second Battle of Panipat and later won famous victories during the Siege of Chittorgarh and the Siege of Ranthambore; He greatly expanded the Empire and is regarded as the most illustrious ruler of the Mughal Empire as he set up the empire's various institutions; he married Mariam-uz-Zamani, a Rajput princess. One of his most famous construction marvels was the Lahore Fort.
JahangirOct 15691605–16271627Jahangir set the precedent for sons rebelling against their emperor fathers. Opened first relations with the British East India Company. Reportedly was an alcoholic, and his wife Empress Noor Jahan became the real power behind the throne and competently ruled in his place.
Shah JahanJan 5, 15921627–16581666Under him, Mughal art and architecture reached their zenith; constructed the Taj Mahal, Jama Masjid, Red Fort, Jahangir mausoleum, and Shalimar Gardens in Lahore. Deposed by his son Aurangzeb.
AurangzebOct 21, 16181658–1707Mar 3, 1707He reinterpreted Islamic law and presented the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri; he captured the diamond mines of the Sultanate of Golconda; he spent the major part of his last 27 years in the war with the Maratha rebels; at its zenith, his conquests expanded the empire to its greatest extent; the over-stretched empire was controlled by Mansabdars, and faced challenges after his death. He is known to have transcribed copies of the Qur'an using his own styles of calligraphy. He died during a campaign against the ravaging Marathas in the Deccan.
Bahadur Shah IOct 14, 16431707–1712Feb 1712First of the Mughal emperors to preside over an empire ravaged by uncontrollable revolts. After his reign, the empire went into steady decline due to the lack of leadership qualities among his immediate successors.
Jahandar Shah16641712–1713Feb 1713Was an unpopular incompetent titular figurehead;
Furrukhsiyar16831713–17191719His reign marked the ascendancy of the manipulative Syed Brothers, execution of the rebellious Banda. In 1717 he granted a Firman to the English East India Company granting them duty-free trading rights in Bengal. The Firman was repudiated by the notable Murshid Quli Khan the Mughal appointed ruler of Bengal.
Rafi Ul-DarjatUnknown17191719
Rafi Ud-DaulatUnknown17191719
Muhammad IbrahimUnknown17201744
Muhammad Shah17021719–1720, 1720–17481748Got rid of the Syed Brothers. Tried to counter the emergence of the Marathas but his empire disintegrated. Suffered the invasion of Nadir-Shah of Persia in 1739.
Ahmad Shah Bahadur17251748–541775
Alamgir II16991754–17591759He was murdered according by the Vizier Imad-ul-Mulk and Maratha associate Sadashivrao Bhau.
Shah Jahan IIIUnknownIn 17591772Was ordained to the imperial throne by Sadashivrao Bhau. Shah Jahan III was overthrown after the Third Battle of Panipat by Prince Mirza Jawan Bakht.
Shah Alam II17281759–18061806Was nominated as the Mughal Emperor by Ahmad Shah Durrani after the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761. 1764 saw the defeat of the combined forces of Mughal Emperor, Nawab of Oudh & Nawab of Bengal and Bihar at the hand of East India Company at the Battle of Buxar. Following this defeat, Shah Alam II left Delhi for Allahabad, ending hostilities with the Treaty of Allahabad (1765). Shah Alam II was reinstated to the throne of Delhi in 1772 by Mahadaji Shinde under the protection of the Marathas. He was a de jure emperor. In 1793 British East India company abolished Nizamat (Mughal suzerainty) and took control of the former Mughal province of Bengal marking the beginning of British reign in part of Eastern India officially.
Akbar Shah II17601806–18371837He became a British pensioner after the defeat of the Maratha's in the third Anglo-Maratha war who were till then the protector of the Mughal throne. Under East India company's protection, his imperial name was removed from the official coinage after a brief dispute with the British East India Company;
Bahadur Shah II17751837–18571862The last Mughal emperor was deposed in 1858 by the British East India company and exiled to Burma following the War of 1857 after the fall of Delhi to the company troops. End of Mughal dynasty.

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